# 4. Kernel map approximation for faster kernel methodsΒΆ

Kernel methods, which are among the most flexible and influential tools in machine learning with applications in virtually all areas of the field, rely on high-dimensional feature spaces in order to construct powerfull classifiers or regressors or clustering algorithms. The main drawback of kernel methods is their prohibitive computational complexity. Both spatial and temporal complexity

is at least quadratic because we have to compute the whole kernel matrix.

One of the popular way to improve the computational scalability of kernel methods is to approximate the feature map impicit behind the kernel method. In practice, this means that we will compute a low dimensional approximation of the the otherwise high-dimensional embedding used to define the kernel method.

`Fastfood`

approximates feature map of an RBF kernel by Monte Carlo approximation
of its Fourier transform.

Fastfood replaces the random matrix of Random Kitchen Sinks (RBFSampler) with an approximation that uses the Walsh-Hadamard transformation to gain significant speed and storage advantages. The computational complexity for mapping a single example is O(n_components log d). The space complexity is O(n_components).

See scikit-learn User-guide for more general informations on kernel approximations.

See also `EigenProRegressor`

and `EigenProClassifier`

for another
way to compute fast kernel methods algorithms.